首次确认小肠寄生虫的耐药性

发布时间:2017-08-24 15:20:16   来源:猪ok网   阅读:2203次

AUSTRIA - The parasite Cystoisospora suis causes diarrhea in pigs, especially in newborn piglets, and is capable of quickly spreading across farms.

奥地利-寄生虫孢子囊菌引起猪的腹泻,特别是在新生仔猪中,能够迅速蔓延到农场。

For this reason, pig farmers in Europe preventively use toltrazuril to control parasite development. In contrast to congeneric parasites in chicken, no resistance to this pharmaceutical compound was described in pig parasites until recently.

因此,欧洲的养猪者使用替硝唑来预防寄生虫传播。与鸡的同种寄生虫恰恰相反,到目前为止,猪寄生虫对这种药物化合物没有抗药性。

In an article in Parasites & Vectors, researchers of the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, have now for the first time confirmed that toltrazuril is ineffective against a Dutch isolate of the parasite.

在“ 寄生虫与载体”的文章中,维也纳兽医大学的研究人员现第一次证实,托伐沙利对荷兰寄生虫的分离是无效的。

Even though antiparasitic resistance in pig parasites is developing slowly, monitoring of resistance should be intensified due to the lack of alternative treatment options, and increased hygiene measures should be taken to prevent pathogen spread.

尽管猪寄生虫的抗药性发展缓慢,但是由于缺乏替代治疗方案,应加强对抗药性的监测,并采取更多的卫生措施来预防病原体扩散。

When newborn piglets suffer from diarrhea, this is frequently caused by the intestinal parasite Cystoisospora suis. The pathogen may spread rapidly on affected farms, causing a high rate of disease among livestock.

新生仔猪腹泻,通常是由肠道寄生虫囊孢病引起的。病原体可能在受影响的农场迅速蔓延,造成家畜疾病发生率高。

Infections are rarely fatal, but they hamper the growth of suckling piglets and thus reduce body weight compared to healthy individuals. The course of infection varies from one piglet to another, leading to uneven weight development which consequently can induce significant economic losses for the affected farm.

该病感染致死率低,但与健康猪群相比,它们阻碍了乳仔猪的生长,从而减轻体重。仔猪之间相互传染,导致体重不均匀发展,从而对受影响的农场造成重大的经济损失。

When pathogenic bacteria infect the intestines damaged by the parasite, the piglets are susceptible to serious diseases, which can lead to the loss of entire litters.

病原菌感染被寄生虫损伤的肠道,仔猪易发生严重的疾病,这可能导致整窝猪的损失。

In Europe a standard treatment regimen with toltrazuril has been used to control the parasite for about two decades now. In contrast to congeneric parasites in chicken, against which toltrazuril is no longer consistently effective, resistance to this pharmaceutical was not known in pigs until recently.

欧洲使用托三嗪的标准治疗方案控制寄生虫已经约二十年了。与鸡的同源寄生虫相反,托三嗪疗效不再,直到最近才知道猪对这种药物产生了抗药性。

It was only in 2014 that a Dutch producer reported an increased rate of diarrhea in newborn piglets despite treatment. Using isolates from this farm, researchers at the Institute of Parasitology were able to prove for the first time that the parasites in question were resistant to toltrazuril.

只有2014年,荷兰生产者报告称,尽管治疗了,新生仔猪的腹泻率也在上升。使用该农场的分离株,寄生虫学研究所的研究人员才首次证明有关的寄生虫对托三嗪具有抗药性。

Diarrhea manifests despite double dose of toltrazuril

使用双倍剂量的托三嗪仍然有腹泻现象

Based on the information from the Dutch swine farmer, samples of this strain of parasites - so-called isolates - were compared to an isolate from Vienna on which toltrazuril has the desired effect.

根据荷兰猪农的信息,将这种寄生虫菌种(所谓的分离株)的样品与维也纳的托三嗪有效果的分离株托进行了比较。

"Prior to this, we ruled out the possibility that bacteria or viruses could have caused the diarrhea. By this, we could demonstrate that the parasite was very likely the cause of the disease," says Head Researcher Anja Joachim.

首席研究员Anja Joachim说:“在此之前,我们排除了细菌或病毒可能导致腹泻的可能性,因此我们可以证明寄生虫很可能是疾病的原因。

To confirm the resistance, the research team administered various doses of toltrazuril, starting at the prescribed dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight.

为了证实耐药性,研究小组以规定的剂量20mg/kg体重开始施用不同剂量的托三嗪。

All piglets infected with the Dutch isolate developed diarrhea on the fourth day after infection - regardless of the dose of the medication.

所有感染丹麦分离株的仔猪在第四天发现腹泻-无论药物的剂量如何

"Even treatment with the double dose had no effect on these isolates," notes Professor Joachim.

Apart from symptoms such as diarrhea, the presence of developmental stages of the parasite is a clear indication of its presence.

"Toltrazuril is effective if no oocysts - the final developmental stage of the parasite - are present in fecal samples," say lead authors Aruna Shrestha and Barbara Freudenschuss.

约阿希姆教授指出:“即使用双剂量治疗也不会对这些分离物产生影响。

除了腹泻等症状外,寄生虫发育各阶段的存在明显特征。

作者Aruna Shrestha和Barbara Freudenschuss说:“如果没有卵囊(寄生虫的最终发育阶段)存在于粪便样品中,托吡唑脲是有效的。

Final development stage of the parasite found in feces confirms its drug resistance

粪便中寄生虫的最终发育阶段被证实有耐药性

When the parasite keeps developing in the intestine, it forms oocysts which are excreted via the feces. In this way, the pathogen is spread within the litter and the existing livestock, as oocysts are highly infectious and have a very strong tenacity in the environment.

寄生虫在肠中持续发育,形成卵囊,并通过粪便排出。通过这种方式,病原体会传播到垃圾和现存家畜中,因为卵囊具有高度的传染性,并且对外界环境抵抗力强。

If toltrazuril takes effect, no oocysts are present in the feces; the life cycle of the parasite is disrupted, preventing it from spreading. By contrast, the parasite isolated in the Netherlands was detected in all fecal samples, despite treatment.

如果托三嗪生效,粪便中不会有卵囊; 寄生虫的生命周期受到破坏,阻止其蔓延。相比之下,尽管进行了治疗,在所有粪便样品中检测到了荷兰分离株的寄生虫。

"This is how we conclusively showed that toltrazuril had no effect on this parasite isolate. This makes it the first strain of Cystoisospora suis with confirmed resistance to toltrazuril," assert the authors.

“我们得出结论表明,托三嗪对这种寄生虫分离株没有效果,这也是首次证实了卵囊等孢虫属对托三嗪具有耐药性”作者称。

As part of the standard treatment regimen, there has been no regular testing for reduced efficacy of the drug resulting from possible resistance.

作为标准治疗方案的一部分,由于抗药性而导致的药物功效降低而没有定期检测。

"Until recently, there had only been some suspicion based on reports from the field. However, we were worried because resistant strains in chickens were constantly developing. The strain from the Dutch pig stock confirmed our suspicion. Resistance of Cystoisospora suis seems to be developing slowly, but it is expected to become more frequent," explains Professor Joachim.

“直到最近,根据该领域的报道,只有一些怀疑,但是我们担心,因为鸡的耐药菌株不断发展,荷兰猪的菌株证实了我们的怀疑,孢子囊孢菌的抗性似乎发展缓慢,但预计会变得更加频繁。”约阿希姆教授解释说。

Resistance to toltrazuril on pig farms could become a problem as there is no practical alternative control measure available. Once resistant parasites appear in a farm, there is no way of eliminating them permanently.

因为没有实用的替代控制措施,猪场对托三嗪耐药可能会成为一个问题。一旦有抗药性的寄生虫感染农场,就没有办法永久消除它们。

Improved hygiene standards and disinfection are currently the only immediate alternative

目前卫生标准和消毒的改进是唯一的直接替代方案

The researchers advise veterinarians to increase testing for diarrhea and oocysts, regardless of preventive treatment.

"These routine checks can be performed easily. When oocysts are discovered in the feces despite the administration of toltrazuril, additional measures should be taken immediately," warns Professor Joachim.

研究人员建议兽医增加对腹泻和卵囊的检测,无论是预防还是治疗。

约阿希姆教授警告说:“这些例行检查可以很容易地进行,尽管使用了托三嗪,在粪便中发现卵囊,应该立即采取其他措施。

Improved hygiene measures and chemical disinfection in particular can keep down the number of oocysts in the environment of the piglets.

This is an essential prerequisite for preventing resistant parasites from spreading. As a consequence, it will be essential to consistently monitor the success of treatment in order to detect any developing resistance of the parasite.

改善卫生措施和化学消毒可以减少仔猪环境中的卵囊数量。

这是预防抗寄生虫传播的重要前提。因此,治疗成功后必须始终有效监测,以便检测寄生虫抵抗力的发展趋势。



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