动物饲料配方六步走(二)

发布时间:2017-09-10 17:19:08   来源:猪OK   阅读:3060次

1Define the animals that will receive the formulated feed.

定义需要饲料配方的动物

饲料配方

Asking a nutritionist to prepare a broiler formula is like asking an architect to design a house, that is, without any further qualifications. Animal species is never enough. We need to define animal weight or age start to end and even genetics. Thus, a formula designed for a Ross broiler to be fed between the age of two and four weeks is different from a Cobb broiler feed of the same age. Likewise, even within the same genetic line, a starter feed is markedly different than a finishing feed. Furthermore, specialty feeds require even more qualifications, but this is rather advanced for the purposes of this discussion.

要求营养学家准备一个肉鸡配方就像要求建筑师设计一个房子,也就是说,没有任何进一步的限制。动物物种远远不够。 我们需要从头到尾限定动物体重或年龄,甚至是遗传学。因此,为两周至四周喂养罗斯肉鸡而设计的配方与同龄年龄的科布肉鸡饲料不同,同样,即使在相同的基因系中,起始饲料与精制饲料截然不同。此外,专业饲料需要更多的限定,但对于此次讨论的目的来讲,这是相当先进的。

2、Select the right source of nutrient specifications.

选择合适的营养源。

Quite often genetic companies publish their own estimates of nutrient requirements for each age or phase to be used along with their products. Experienced nutritionists will consider such information as the starting base and provide adjustments to suit individual farm needs. For example, a broiler farm experiencing early deaths among the fastest growing birds will need to feed diets with a lower energy/nutrient levels than normally recommended. There is a myriad of such cases, most of them commonplace, but some rather exotic.When genetic companies do not publish their own nutrient requirement tables or when the nutritionist considers them inadequate then there is a great number of scientific bodies that provide similar information. Picking the right one remains one of the hottest topics of debate among nutrition professionals.

遗传公司经常公布自己定义的每个年龄或阶段的营养需求估计,并于其产品一起使用。经验丰富的营养学家将这些信息作为起始基础考虑,并提供适应农场需求的调整。例如,在禽场中遇到早期死亡的肉鸡养殖场将需要以比正常推荐的更低的能量/营养水平喂养饮食。有很多这种情况,其中大多数是常见的,但有些则是“异国情调”。当遗传公司不公布自己的营养需求表时或营养学家认为它们不足的话,那么有很多科学机构提供类似的信息。选择正确的营养源仍然是营养专业人士中最热门的辩论话题之一。

3、List available ingredients with their characteristics and prices.

列出可用成分的特性和价格

Animals will receive energy and nutrients through the medium of wholesome ingredients. Thus, a commercial nutritionist has ingredients to work with and not purified nutrients. A list of available ingredients and their prices is often all that is available, but in most cases, further information is required. Wheat is an ingredient that will provide a very interesting example. Wheat is never just wheat. There is soft and hard wheat with a great disparity in crude protein levels. There is wheat from national or international trade; the former is easier to characterize, the latter almost impossible. Even wheat of the same genetic stock can differ markedly in nutrient composition depending on the area and climate under which it was grown. All such information will help the nutritionist pick or prepare a nutrient matrix for the exact ingredient at hand; not doing so will run the risk of under- or over-feeding animals, both of which are not profitable outcomes.

动物将通过有益的成分获得能量和营养。因此,一个商业营养师有工作考虑因素,而不是纯粹的营养因素。可用成分及其价格的清单通常都是可用的,但在大多数情况下,需要进一步的信息。小麦作为原料,它将提供一个非常有趣的例子。小麦绝不仅仅是小麦。有软硬小麦,粗蛋白水平相差悬殊。有来自国家或国际贸易的小麦;前者更容易描述,后者几乎不可能。即使是同一基因品种的小麦,其营养成分也有明显的差异,这取决于其生长的地区和气候。所有这些信息将有助于营养学家挑选或准备一个营养基质,为手边的确切成分提供营养;不这样做会产生过度喂养或过度喂养动物的风险,而这两种结果都不是有利可图的。

4、Decide on the maximum and minimum allowances.

决定最高或最低限量

Not all ingredients can be used without limits. Corn and soybean meal are two ingredients that are seldom limited in most feed formulas. Other ingredients require a maximum level because they are too expensive or contain too many anti-nutritional factors. Fish meal is an example: too much, and the feed becomes too expensive. Animals can be turned off by the feed containing fish oil, and their products (eggs, milk) can be tainted by its smell. In a few cases, a minimum is required, as is with diets for young animals that require sensitive and expensive ingredients. Although there are tables that list the maximum-allowed levels for most unconventional materials, these figures often change based on new research and improvements in plant breeding or manufacturing of resulting feed ingredients. Thus, it remains at the discretion of the nutritionist to lower such maximum limits (for example, when by-products of unknown origin are to be used) or raise them (for example, when a different plant variety is used that is known to contain less anti-nutritional factors).

不是所有的成分都可以无限制地使用。玉米和豆粕是大多数饲料配方中很少受到限制的成分。其他成分限定一个最高水平,因为它们太贵或者含有太多的抗营养因子。鱼粉就是这样一个例子:太多了,饲料变得太贵了。动物可以被含有鱼油的饲料影响,它们的产品(蛋、奶)会被其气味所污染。在一些情况下,最低限度是必需的,对于需要敏感和昂贵成分的幼龄动物的饲料也是如此。虽然有表格列出了大多数非传统材料的最大允许水平,但这些数字往往基于新的植物育种或生产饲料原料生产研究和改进方案。因此,营养学家仍需酌情降低这种最大限度(例如,当使用未知来源的副产品时)或提高它们(例如,当已知的不同植物品种含有较少的抗营养因子时)。

5、Use a feed formulation software to prepare the formula.

用饲料配方软件配制配方

Some believe that having a feed formulation program is all you need to formulate feeds. They assume, erroneously, that the above data are already pre-entered and they are correct; nothing further from the truth. Most companies that sell feed formulation programs cannot assume the responsibility required, and if they provide such data, it is only for training purposes or to test their demo software. But even without the data required to run a feed formulation software, picking the right program is a daunting experience. Free, stand-alone, feed formulation programs abound, but they often crash. Cloud-based programs come with better support and becoming increasingly more available basic versions are free but they have limited capabilities, often a step above a free demo. A spreadsheet program like Excel from Microsoft with a Solver add-on function can be used to create ones own least cost feed formulation program, but this requires advanced spreadsheet knowledge. Finally, a professional software can be obtained at various prices giving different capabilities. Here, a user-friendly interface is the most important as most programs focus on capabilities, often being crude transfers from old DOS operating systems, forgetting that Windows users require a different interface experience.

有些人认为,有一个饲料配方程序就是所有你需要制定饲料的工具了。他们假设上述预先输入数据是正确的;与事实无关。大多数销售饲料配方的公司都不能承担所需的责任,如果他们提供这样的数据,那只是为了培训目的或者测试他们的演示软件。但是,即使没有运行饲料配方软件所需的数据,选择合适的程序也是一次令人畏缩的经历。免费,独立,饲料配方程序比比皆是,但他们经常崩溃。基于云的程序有更好的支持和越来越多的可用性-基本版本是免费的,但它们的能力有限,通常是免费演示的一个步骤。一个电子表格程序,像微软Excel中的一个解决方案添加功能可以用来创建一个自己的成本最低饲料配方程序,但这需要先进的电子表格知识。最后,一个专业的软件可以在不同的价格获得不同的功能。在这里,一个用户友好的界面是最重要的,因为大多数程序关注功能,通常是来自旧DOS操作系统的原始传输,忘记了Windows用户需要不同的接口体验。

6、Review and adjust the formula to production limits.

查看并将公式调整为生产界限

Thinking that all is now done? Unfortunately, feed formulation in earnest begins only now. Never was a feed formulated with just one run alone. The first draft needs to be reviewed. Often a low-cost ingredient, like salt or calcium carbonate, is pulled in at excessive levels because some nutrient specification had no lower limit to force a more expensive ingredient to price into the formula. And, even after fixing these irregularities, one has to look at the formula from a feed manufacturing point of view. For example, is 0.15 percent wheat (1.5 kg per metric ton) something that needs to be there when most feed mixing facilities have a minimum loading allowance of 5 kg? Or, will the mixer handle 10 percent soybean oil, or will the pelleting machine handle 40 percent dried whey? These questions require an understanding of the feed manufacturing process at the exact place where the formula will be converted into a tangible product. These are the things you learn in the field!

以为一切都已完成?不幸的是,饲料配方目前才刚刚开始。从来没有一个饲料配方只是一个单独运行。第一稿需要审查。通常,像盐或碳酸钙这样的低成本成分会被过度摄入,因为一些营养规范没有限制将更昂贵的成分定价到配方中。而且,即使在修正了这些违规行为后,我们也必须从饲料生产的角度来看这个公式。例如,0.15%小麦(每公吨1.5公斤),当大多数饲料混合设备的最低装载限额为5公斤时,需要什么?或者,将搅拌处理10%大豆油,或将造粒机处理40%乳清粉?这些问题需要理解饲料的生产过程,在配方转化为有形产品的确切位置。这些是你在课外学到的东西!

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