乳酸发酵饲料如何利于养猪生产

发布时间:2017-11-09 14:00:08   来源:猪OK   阅读:2140次

Modern pig production has some major challenges. Pressure on cost price is and will remain a decisive factor to survive as a farmer. More recently, human concerns on antibiotic resistance resulted in pressure to significantly reduce antibiotic use in pig production. Another human health issue is the need to reduce Salmonella incidence in pig production. Environmental pollution aspects, like nitrogen and phosphorous excretion, and the amount of manure, force the pig sector to improve efficiency of diets and production. The European political wish to forbid use of GMO-soya and/or restrict import of soya means alternative European protein raw materials have to be used. Fermentation of raw materials for pig nutrition offers advantages in all of these major challenges.

乳酸

现代养猪生产面临很多重大挑战,养殖成本不管现在还是将来都是决定养殖户是否盈利的关键因素。最近,人们对抗生素耐药性的担忧使得养猪生产中抗生素的使用面临着巨大压力。另一个人类健康问题就是需要减少猪群中沙门氏菌病的发病率。环境污染方面,如氮磷和粪便的排放量,这些都迫使养猪业必须要提高饲料利用率和生产效率。欧洲政府希望禁止使用转基因大豆或限制大豆进口,这意味着欧洲必须使用这些蛋白质原料的替代品在应对这些主要的挑战中,饲料原料的发酵都有较大的优势。

表1 断奶仔猪饲料中加入酵母的效果

 

对照组

有酵母组

显著性

日增重(g

416

408

P=0.12NS

料肉比

1.6

1.55

P=0.01

死亡率(%

2.4

1.6

P=0.05

用发酵原料喂养饮食导致更好的饲料转化率和较低的死亡率。

 Fermentation mixtures include a high proportion of one or two raw materials high in carbohydrates (i.e., barley, wheat, rye) and one or two raw materials high in protein and/or fiber (i.e., rapeseed meal, sunflower meal, wheat bran). This fermented mixture has an inclusion rate between 30 and 60 percent in the final diets of sows, piglets and grower-finishers. Farms using the fermentation concept reported savings on feed costs, less use of antibiotics, reduction of Salmonella incidence, less manure production and less use of imported soya. These benefits result in a sharp increase in interest in fermentation, world-wide.

发酵混合物包括高比例的一种或两种高碳水化合物原料大麦小麦黑麦)和一种或两种富含蛋白质或纤维饲料原料(菜籽粉、葵花籽麦麸)。这种发酵混合物在母猪仔猪和育成猪的日粮中最终比例30和60%。使用发酵饲料的农场认为这样做可以节省饲料成本,减少抗生素使用,降低沙门氏菌病发病率,减少排粪量以及减少进口大豆的使用。因此发酵饲料在世界范围内收到广泛关注。

 New fermentation concept on pig farms

Based on a three-year R&D project, which was a cooperation between ForFarmers, WEDA Holland, Van Asten Group (a family owning pig farms in Holland and Germany) and LEROSCH, new basic conditions were drawn up in the fermentation concept. Hot water, hygiene protocols, batch-fermentation and an activated liquid starter culture are the main four pillars.

猪场新发酵概念

基于一项三年的研发项目,该项目是由ForFarmers、荷兰WEDA、Van Asten集团(荷兰和德国均有养猪场)和LEROSCH合作发起的,在发酵理念中重新制定了新的发酵基本条件。其中热水卫生方案分批发酵和活化液体起子培养是关键因素

 Hot water is used to start with a pasteurization of the raw materials to be fermented. After this, the temperature is brought to 37-38C by adding cold water, followed by the addition of the activated liquid starter culture. Hot water is also necessary for an effective cleaning and disinfection of the fermenters. From this point of view, stainless steel fermenters are strongly preferred.

热水使用从待发酵原料的巴氏消毒开始。此后,通过加入冷水将温度升至37℃~38℃,然后加入活化液体起子培养物。热水对于发酵罐的有效清洁和消毒也是必需的。从这个角度来看,最好选用不锈钢发酵罐。

   Batch-fermentation is another major hygiene factor. This means two fermenters are used, which are alternately fermented and fed to the pigs. The complete emptying and cleaning of the fermenter every day before a new batch is fermented are crucial to obtain a successful fermented soup with constant taste, pH and acid composition.

分批发酵是另一个主要保证卫生的因素。这意味着使用两个发酵罐,它们交替发酵饲料喂猪。在新批次发酵前每天完全排空和清洁发酵罐对于获得具有恒定味道、pH值和酸组成的发酵成功的液体是至关重要的。

 发酵饲料典型pH曲线(400个发酵批次的平均pH值)

 The use of a liquid starter culture is fundamental because it allows a quicker pH drop and optimal production of lactic acid and acetic acid compared to the use of commonly used dry starter cultures.

使用液体起子培养物是至关重要的,因为与使用常用的固体起子培养物相比,液体起子培养物可以使pH值下降更快以及能够使得乳酸和乙酸达到最佳产量

Farms using the fermentation concept reported an average economic advantage of EUR30 per sow, EUR1.50 per sold piglet, and EUR3 per sold fattener. These advantages include the feed costs and the performance data (including health) of the pigs. Not included are the savings on use of organic acids because of better stability/microbial hygiene of the final liquid diets. Also, savings in less manure quantity and less nitrogen and phosphorus per m3 manure are not counted in.

使用发酵饲料的农场报告平均每头母猪、仔猪、育肥猪分别多获利30欧元、1.50欧元、3欧元。使用发酵饲料的优点包括猪的饲料成本和性能数据(包括健康)。这些优点并不包括节省有机酸的使用量。另外同样也不包括排粪量和氮磷排放量的减少。

The better economics makes it interesting for a big proportion of the liquid feed farms to invest into fermentation technology. Return-on-investment calculations often results in a 5-year or shorter payback, which is considered as short in pig industry.

由于使用发酵饲料具有更好地经济效益,这使得大部分使用液体饲料的农场对发酵饲料产生浓厚的兴趣,并投资使用发酵技术。投资回报时间为5年或者更短,这在养猪产业上可以说是回报时间短的了。

 The future of fermentation

The current concept of fermentation is based on the addition of an activated liquid lactic acid bacteria as starter culture. Ongoing research is focused on the use of enzymes during the fermentation process. The goal of enzyme inclusion in the fermenter is to make it possible to use high-fiber raw materials in higher inclusion rates or to use raw materials, which are not used in pig nutrition yet. Transfer cow feed into sow feed is an interesting slogan.

发酵前景

目前的发酵基于加入活化的液体乳酸菌作为起始培养物。正在进行的研究专注于在发酵过程中酶的使用。发酵罐中使用酶的目的是可以利用那些包含高比例的高纤维饲料原料或者还没用作猪饲料的饲料原料。把牛饲料转变成猪饲料是个很有意思的课题

Fermentation of raw materials offers huge possibilities to improve financial results, reduce antibiotic use, reduce environmental pollution, reduce Salmonella incidence and to use European protein raw materials instead of imported soya. Further research will allow the usage of new and cheaper raw materials with the help of enzymes.

原料的发酵为节省养殖场成本,减少抗生素使用环境污染,降低沙门氏菌病的发病率大豆进口提供了很大的可能性。接下来将进一步研究在酶的辅助如何使用新的和更便宜的原料进行发酵



扫一扫,领取百元红包哦
本文来源:猪OK

免责声明:本网未注明“稿件来源:猪OK网”的文、图、视频等稿件均为转载,因为互联网信息具有海量的特点,如对原文转载或者来源出处有误,请致电400-860-2219进行更正。如转载猪OK网的稿件,请注明转载“猪OK网”。本网站资料仅供参考,若资料与原文有疑问,请以原文为准。

分享到:0
0
关键词阅读: 乳酸发酵饲料养猪
.乳酸发酵饲料如何利于养猪生产
主编推荐

猪OK客户端下载

更新日期:2019-05-07
地区 品种 价格
元/公斤
涨跌额
青海 外三元 18 0
浙江 外三元 16.51 -0.15
福建 外三元 16.39 -0.04
甘肃 外三元 16.38 -0.22
四川 外三元 16.37 -0.2
上海 外三元 16.33 0.83
重庆 外三元 16.16 0.22
山东 外三元 15.97 0.03
江苏 外三元 15.93 0.07
天津 外三元 15.72 0.06