使用鸡卵黄免疫球蛋白提高仔猪存活率

发布时间:2017-12-11 16:51:29   来源:猪OK   阅读:2601次

Losses in the farrowing unit normally occur during the first seven days of life as piglets are born with nearly no immune protection. The intake of immunoglobulins out of colostrum therefore is of vital importance. Besides cleanliness and special feeding,piglet survival can be enhanced by two additional strategies that support the effect of colostrum: a direct one, meaning the application of immunoglobulins (IgY from eggs) to piglets andsupporting the immune system in the gut, or an indirect one, meaning supply of IgY to the sow and therefore keeping the pathogenic pressure in the farrowing unit as low as possible.

鸡卵黄免疫球蛋白仔猪

仔猪死亡主要发生在出生7天以内,因为这时候的仔猪缺乏免疫保护能力。因此,在初乳中摄入免疫球蛋白是至关重要的。除了保证饲养环境的卫生和精心喂养以外,还可以通过以下两种来补充初乳的免疫保护力提高仔猪存活率:一个直接手段就是应用鸡卵黄免疫球蛋白(鸡蛋中的IgY)来支持仔猪的肠道免疫力;还有一个间接方法是给母猪应用IgY,从而使得分娩舍的疾病压力尽可能降到最低。

Piglets are born with no immune protection and scarce energy reserves

It is clear that piglets are physiologically immature at birth. Their energy reserves are scarce atapproximately 1 to2 percentof body fat, with the main part of it structural and subcutaneous. Therefore, in the first hours of life they mostly count on the glucose supply out of glycogen from the liver as a main source, but this is only enough to cover their needs for a few hours.

仔猪出生时没有足够的免疫和能量储备

我们都知道仔猪出生时生理上发育并不成熟。它们的自己储存的能量很低,只有大约1%2%的体脂,主要分布于皮下。因此,在生命的头几个小时,它们的能量来源主要是肝脏中的糖原分解,但这仅仅只能满足它们几个小时的能量需要。

Due to the construction of the sow’s placenta, a transfer of immunoglobulins (antibodies) within the womb is not possible. The piglets are born with practically no immune protection and depend on the immediate intake of immunoglobulins out of colostrum. The immunoglobulins can be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and immediately transferred into the bloodstream — but also only for a short time. The absorption ability of the piglets starts to decrease soon after birth and ends after 24 to 36 hours.

由于母猪胎盘的结构原因,子宫内免疫球蛋白(抗体)是不可能传递给仔猪的。仔猪出生时几乎没有免疫保护它是否具有免疫力取决于能否立即摄取到初乳中免疫球蛋白。免疫球蛋白可以在胃肠道中被吸收并立即转移到血液中,但这也也只能在很短的时间发挥作用。仔猪的出生后免疫球蛋白的吸收能力是逐渐下降直到出生2436小时后结束。

Strategy 1: Keeping pathogenic pressure in the farrowing unit as low as possible

Regarding the preconditions, it is clear that the farrowing unit has to provide as much comfort for the piglets as possible. It has to be warm: low temperature promotes hypoglycemia, and the piglets looking for heating nearby the sow can get crushed. It has to be clean, and the pathogenic pressure has to be as low as possible: a low immune status makes the piglets susceptible to pathogens likeE. coli, Clostridium perfringensand rotavirus,all causing diarrhea. Concerning these requests, the first two measures would be cleaning of the farrowing unit and heating. As the demandfor heating is different in sows and piglets, a piglet nest with a special heat lamp is recommended.

策略1尽可能降低产房的致病性

要保证的仔猪的健康首先产房就要让仔猪感到舒适。产房温度要适宜,因为温度过低会引起仔猪低血糖,还有如果温度低,仔猪会靠近母猪寻求热源,这样跟容易被母猪压死。还要保证产房的清洁干净,尽可能减少致病菌。因为仔猪刚生下来,缺乏免疫力,很容易感染大肠杆菌、产气荚膜梭菌和轮状病毒等,这些都会引发仔猪腹泻。所以首先就是要保证产房的温度和卫生情况鉴于母猪和仔猪对温度的需求不同,推荐使用带特殊加热灯的仔猪窝。

Relating to the pathogenic pressure, things are more complicated, as most of the pathogens are provided by the sow excreting them together with the feces. Therefore, strategy must be to keep the amount of pathogens possibly excreted by the sow as low as possible or to “inactivate” these pathogens and make them harmless for the piglets. The first one could be achieved by vaccination of the sow: the sow produces immunoglobulins against the pathogens and fights them. An additional advantage: the vaccination also positively influences the content of immunoglobulins in the colostrum.

对于产房致病性这一方面就比较复杂了,因为大多数病原体都是跟随母猪的粪便排出。因此,我们就必须尽量灭活这些病原体使病原体不会感染仔猪第一,我们可以通过母猪的疫苗免疫来实现母猪接种疫苗后产生针对病原体的免疫球蛋白并与之相抗衡,体内病原菌的数量就会减少这样做还可以增加初乳中的免疫球蛋白的含量,从而进一步提高仔猪的免疫力

The second one could be reached by feeding natural ingredients like probiotics. The aim is to control enteric pathogens and to strengthen the immune system, especially locally in the gut. The main mode of action consists of improving intestinal health by decreasing the population of potentially harmful microorganisms such asE. coli,Salmonella, andClostridium. Favoring the multiplication of good microbes like Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria is one possibility. They compete with harmful pathogens for nutrients and binding sites and prevent them from multiplying. Another one is the administration of egg immunoglobulins (IgY) to the sow through her feed. The egg immunoglobulins bind to the pathogens within the intestinal tract. In this complex the pathogens are no longer active, and this harmless form can be ingested by piglets without danger.

第二,可以喂养益生菌等天然成分来降低病原体数量。喂养益生菌等可以控制肠道病原体并增强肠道内免疫系统效力。益生菌的主要的作用方式是通过减少大肠杆菌、沙门氏菌和梭菌等潜在有害微生物的数量来改善肠道健康。促进有益菌如乳酸杆菌和双歧杆菌的繁殖。这些有益菌可以与致病菌竞争营养和结合位点,从而抑制了致病菌在肠道内的繁殖。还可以通过拌料给母猪喂鸡卵黄免疫球蛋白(IgY)。鸡卵黄免疫球蛋白与肠道内的病原体结合形成复合物,在这种复合物中,病原体不再活跃,这种无害的复合物即使被仔猪摄取也不会引发感染。

Strategy 2: Supporting piglets directly with administration of immunoglobulins

The aim is to strengthen the local immunity in the gastrointestinal tract by increasing the amount of immunoglobulins (Ig), which are highly effective defensive cells, and therefore to help the piglets on fighting with different pathogens. The main and most important source of Ig is the sow colostrum. As already mentioned, the content of specific immunoglobulins (IgG) in the colostrum can be increased, for instance, by vaccination of the sow. Another possibility is to orally supply egg immunoglobulins (IgY) directly to the piglets. This is usually achieved with a syringe without needle or special oral doser. Both classes of immunoglobulins (IgG from mammals, and IgY from birds) can bind to harmful germs in the gut, preventingthe binding to the intestinal wall and reducing the incidence of diarrhea. The difference is in the degree of effectiveness and specificity.

策略2:直接给仔猪口服免疫球蛋白

给仔猪使用免疫球蛋白的目的是通过增加高效防御细胞免疫球蛋白(Ig)的量来增强胃肠道的局部免疫力,从而帮助仔猪与不同的病原体作战。Ig的主要和最重要的来源是母猪初乳。就像上文提到的那样,可以通过母猪的疫苗免疫来增加初乳中特异性免疫球蛋白(IgG)的含量。还可以通过无针头注射器或特殊的口服给药器直接仔猪口服鸡卵黄免疫球蛋白IgY)。两类免疫球蛋白(来自哺乳动物的IgG和来自鸟类的IgY)都可以与肠道中的有害细菌结合,阻止与肠壁的结合,从而降低仔猪腹泻的发生率。这两种免疫球蛋白的区别在于有效性和特异性。

Success comes from supporting piglets

Since the success of a piglet-producing farm stands and falls with the number of healthy piglets weaned, it is important to support the piglets best during the critical periods at the beginning of their life. As the immune status of the piglets is a precondition possibly leading to disease and losses, this problem should be one of the first to be targeted. The supply of the piglets with immunoglobulins, whether out of sow’s colostrum or from eggs, is a “direct” possibility.

仔猪决定成败

仔猪场的成败与健康断奶仔猪的数量是呈正相关的,所以当仔猪刚出生的关键时期就要悉心照顾由于仔猪的发病率和死亡率取决于仔猪自身的免疫状况。因此提高仔猪的免疫力是首先要针对性解决的问题。无论是通过初乳还是鸡蛋来向仔猪提供免疫球蛋白,可以直接实现提高仔猪免疫力

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