断奶后仔猪顺利进食的秘诀(二)

发布时间:2017-12-01 16:27:31   来源:猪OK   阅读:3238次

Management. This may be rather obvious, but it cannot be overemphasized how important hygiene and management are in creating an environment for maximal post-weaning performance. Increased biosecurity, an aggressive farm-specific disease prevention program, improved pig/human flow and continuous staff training are essential parts of a professional nursery site. Well-trained managers are the most valuable and sometimes the hardest-to-find assets.

断奶仔猪

管理。这是毋庸置疑的,我们再三强调卫生和管理能为断奶后仔猪最大化的生长性能提供生活环境。提高生物安全,猪场特定疾病预防方案,控制猪/人流动量和持续的员工培训是一个专业化的保育场必不可少组成部分。有经验的场长是最有价值同时也是很难找到的资产。

Diet digestibility. Feed intake generally increases with improving digestibility of the diet. This is a well-known fact, and it is the main reason why most piglet diets are fortified with cooked cereals, milk proteins, fish meal and simple sugars like lactose and sucrose. Although such diets are more expensive than simple diets (based on maize and soybean), the benefits are tremendous in terms of improved performance and health during the whole grow-out period. Ingredients of poor digestibility pass rather intact along the gastrointestinal tract to the large intestine where they promote bacterial proliferation that invariably leads to diarrhea.

饲料消化率。采食量一般随食物消化率的提高而增加。众所周知,这也是大多数仔猪日粮中加入熟谷物,乳蛋白,鱼粉和单糖如乳糖和蔗糖的主要原因。虽然这种日粮比简单的日粮(以玉米和大豆为基础)价格昂贵,但是在整个生长期间提高猪的生长性能和改善机体健康方面有着巨大的好处。不易消化的成分在胃肠道中转运至大肠,在大肠中促进细菌繁殖,最终导致仔猪腹泻。

Specialty ingredients. Antimicrobial agents at growth-promoting levels, zinc oxide and copper sulfate at pharmacological doses, certain organic acids, and in-feed immunoglobulins (from hyper-immunized egg protein or animal plasma) improve post-weaning feed intake and growth. Other highly-digestible protein sources such as fish meal, skim milk and wheat gluten do offer growth promoting advantages as well. An improvement of 10 to 50 percent in growth performance can be easily realized when the proper combination of these ingredients is used. Generally, these ingredients are more efficacious when health, facilities and management are sub-optimal. Improvement in these aspects of production always reduces dependence on such ingredients and reduces feeding cost.

特殊成分。促进生长水平的抗生素,药理剂量的氧化锌和硫酸铜,某些有机酸和饲料中的免疫球蛋白(超免蛋蛋白或动物血浆)可提高断奶仔猪采食量和生长。其他高消化率的蛋白质来源如鱼粉,脱脂牛奶和小麦蛋白确实也具有增长促进的好处。当这些成分合理配比,仔猪的生产性能提高10%50%是很容易的。一般而言,当机体健康情况,设施和管理不理想时,这些日粮成分显得更为有效。改善这些生产不利的方面,猪场会减少对优质日粮成分的依赖,从而降低饲养成本。

Balanced budget. Even though high-quality piglet diets are very helpful in promoting growth performance after weaning, their advantages can be easily lost if they are fed for too long or at the wrong amount for each weight class of weaner pigs. A properly designed budget has a higher allowance of the complex diets for light-weight pigs than for heavy-weight pigs. However, a common mistake is to disregard the fact that heavy pigs are accustomed to consuming large quantities of milk and, thus, they tend to take longer than light-weight pigs to adapt to dry diets. Therefore, a small allotment of the first diet should always be budgeted even for the heaviest pigs. This will prevent them for slowing down or even falling back on their growth rates. It will also reduce variability at the upper range of weights.

均衡的配方。尽管优质仔猪日粮对断奶仔猪生长性能有很大的促进作用,如果对各个生长阶段的仔猪饲喂时间过长或者饲喂量不当,这一优势很容易就丧失了。合理的日粮配方中,体重较轻的配合饲料的上限标准比体重较重的要高。然而,我们总是忽略这样一个常识性错误,体重较大的猪消耗大量的奶水,它们比体重轻的猪需要花更长的时间去适应干饲料。因此,即便是体重最重的猪,初次采食日粮的部分因素也应该被考虑到配方标准中去。防止它们生长速度放缓甚至回落,减少体重上限的变异性。

Mat-feeding. This is probably the most cost-effective way to increase post-weaning feed intake by spreading a small quantity of feed on floor-mats or on solid floors. It greatly encourages pigs to rut and ingest solid feed as early as the first day post-weaning. A mash provides equal results with pellets, but on mats without a rim, pigs like to roll and push pellets instead of picking them up. Placing the mat near the feeder seems to encourage pigs further to consume more feed from the feeder. Pigs require only 2 to 3 days of floor feeding before they become accustomed to eating from regular feeders. Frequent feeding stimulates pigs to eat more and prevents wastage of uneaten portions. However, based on our own research, feeding more than 3 times daily is not advised because pigs become too fond of mat-feeding. Growth performance comparable to pre-weaning rates can be easily achieved, but wastage can become excessive without proper management of mat-feeding.

喂垫料。这可能是通过在地板垫或固体地板上撒少量饲料来提高断奶后仔猪采食量的最经济的方法。它很大程度上刺激了仔猪在断奶后的第一天进食固体饲料。在没有边框的垫子上,粉料与颗粒料的作用效果相同,仔猪用鼻子拱饲料但不吃,将垫子放置在喂料器附近,可以刺激猪从喂料器中消耗更多的饲料。猪只需要23天的这种地板喂料,就能习惯从普通的喂食器中进食。频繁的喂食刺激猪吃的更多,防止浪费。然而,根据我们的研究,每天喂食不要超过3次以上,因为猪太喜欢吃垫料了。实现与仔猪断奶前相当的生长速度很容易,但如果没有适当的垫料管理,会造成饲料的过度浪费。

Milk replacers. Nursery pigs will readily consume a warm liquid milk replacer of the proper temperature and composition. Feeding a milk replacer 3 to 4 days can easily double dry matter intake compared to a pelleted starter formula. However, pigs reared solely on a liquid diet may fail to relate to dry feed unless the milk replacer is combined with a high quality starter diet or milk pellets. Good sanitation and frequent feeding are essential to prevent spoilage and attract pigs to eat. Milk replacers are best suited for low-weight and orphan pigs because of cost constrains. An investment in equipment and labor is also required to reap the full benefits of milk replacers.

母乳替代品。保育猪很容易消化吸收一种适宜的温度和组分的液体母乳替代品。相较于颗粒料的教槽料来说,喂母乳替代品34天,仔猪就会很容易地加倍干物质摄入量。然而,只饲喂液体饲料的猪可能拒食干饲料,除非母乳替代品是高质量的教槽料和乳粒制品的混合饲料。良好的卫生条件和次数频繁的饲喂对于防止饲料变质和吸引猪采食是至关重要的。考虑到成本问题,母乳替代品最适合于体重轻和“孤儿猪”。此外,还需要对设备和人力进行投资,以期能充分发挥母乳替代品的营养优势。

Gruel feeding. In farms where pigs are fed dry diets on a regular basis, a warm gruel (50:50) of feed and water (or a liquid milk co-product) can be offered to weaned pigs in special bowl-type feeders during the first 2 to 3 days post-weaning. This practice prevents starvation, and more importantly, dehydration. Unless the gruel is gradually thickened (70:30), some piglets may fail to adapt to dry feed. Precipitation of solid matter in bowls is not problematic as long as the bowls remain filled with water. Field results with this practice are very encouraging.

喂拌料。猪场定期地饲喂干料的基础之上,一份温度适宜的水(或液体乳的副产品)料比(50:50)的拌料可以放在圆形补料槽中,在仔猪断奶后的23天的时候提供。这种做法可防止猪饥饿,更重要的是防脱水。拌料需要逐渐加稠(70:30),否则一些小猪可能无法适应干饲料。只要料槽中加满水,槽中固体饲料的沉淀就不成问题,且实践经验效果很好。

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