有机酸能控制沙门氏杆菌吗?

发布时间:2017-12-13 16:52:38   来源:猪OK   阅读:3028次

Feedstuffs are the basis for the production of safe foodstuffs of animal origin. Despite the low water activity (aw), however, compound feed can always be contaminated with pathogenic germs. The highest risk for contamination of feed is from Salmonella spp. Special components, such as meal from oil seeds and protein feed of animal origin are considered as high-risk feed.

饲料是生产安全食用动物的基础。尽管水活度(aw,表示饲料中所含的水分作为生物化学反应和微生物生长的可用价值)低,但复合饲料总是会被致病菌污染。饲料最容易受到沙门氏菌的污染一些特殊成分,如来自油料种子的成分和动物蛋白饲料就属于高危饲料。

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More than 80% of Salmonella reports in the European Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) can be traced back to these components. Besides Salmonella spp. the contamination with other pathogens such asClostridium perfringensorListeria monocytogenesare also found in compound feed. These organisms can survive long periods in feed, due to the nutrients and moist content of the feed. When contaminated feed is consumed, pathogenic microorganisms can be transferred to the animals, which is documented as Salmonella in different studies for different animal species.

欧洲食品和饲料快速预警系统(RASFF显示,超过80%的沙门氏菌病例报告可以追溯到上面那些饲料成分。除沙门氏菌其他病原体如产气荚膜梭菌或单核细胞增生斯特氏菌污染复合饲料的情况也时有发生。由于饲料中含有丰富的营养成分和水分,这些生物体可以在饲料中长时间存活。当动物采食受污染的饲料时,这些病原微生物可以转移到动物体内中,这些病原体在不同物种的动物研究中被记录为沙门氏菌。 

Economic importance

When infected animals are slaughtered and further processed, the pathogens can enter the human food chain and thus initiate an infection chain from animals to humans.The legal framework established by the EU (EC regulation on control of Salmonella and other zoonotic agents) and the feed hygiene regulation give feed producers the responsibility for the safety of feed. It clearly states that contaminated feedstuffs must be withdrawn from the market and that the costs of eliminating feedstuffs must be borne by the manufacturer. However, if an effective decontamination of the feed can be demonstrated, further processing is possible. On 13 December 2016, the FEFAC workshop “Salmonella Risk Management in Feed” took place in Paris, where the importance of feed hygiene was once again addressed. Recent research, among others at the AGES in Austria, also reveal the need for more work into this topic.

重要的经济价值

当被感染的动物在屠宰和进一步加工处理时,这些病原体进入人类食物链,从而感染人类。欧盟制定的法律条款(欧共体关于沙门氏菌和其他人兽共患病控制规定)和饲料卫生条例规定饲料生产者应该对饲料安全负责。这些法律法规明确指出,污染的饲料必须从市场上撤撤回的成本必须由生产商承担。然而,如果可以证明受污染的饲料可以被有效净化,则可以进行进一步处理。20161213日,巴黎举行的FEFAC培训饲料中的沙门氏菌风险管理,再次强调了饲料卫生的重要性。最近奥地利的AGES等研究也明确,需要为确保饲料卫生开展更多的工作。

Do organic acids control Salmonella?

Salmonellais the main zoonotic agent transmitted fromcontaminated porkto humans.That is why its control is addressed as afood safety issue.On-farm control success is limited by the complex epidemiology and the lack of any particular effective interventions. Organic acids are popular among on-farm alternatives to control Salmonella. Their efficacy is affected by factors such as the acid and the concentration chosen or the duration of the treatment.

有机酸可以控制沙门氏菌吗?

沙门氏菌病是一种可以污染猪肉传播人类的人畜共患病。因此控制沙门氏杆菌被看做是一个解决食物安全的问题。农场对沙门氏菌的控制受到复杂的流行病学及缺乏特定有效预防措施等的限制。在控制沙门氏菌的抗生素替代品中,有机酸颇受欢迎。它们的作用效果受到有机酸种类、浓度、使用时间等因素的影响。

On-farm control of Salmonella can include different strategies. The use of organic acids, either in feed or water, is one of the most popular. Short-chain (for instance, butyric or propionic) and middle-chain (caproic or caprilic) organic acids and other organic acids such as lactic or formic acid are able to improve gut health by their antibacterial activity against pathogens such as Salmonella. They also improve the conditions for beneficial microbiota (lactic-acid bacteria), which competes directly for the intestinal niche with the pathogen.

农场控制沙门氏菌的方法有很多,其中在饲料或者饮水中添加有机酸是最受养殖户欢迎额方法之一。短链(例如丁酸或丙酸)中链(己酸或己二酸)有机酸和其他有机酸如乳酸或甲酸能够通过抑制沙门氏菌等病原体的活性改善肠道健康。同时它们还改善了肠道有益菌(乳酸菌)的生存环境,这些有益菌可以直接与病原体竞争肠道利基

Factors that affect the efficacy of organic acids against Salmonella:

Acid used: Not all the acids have the same effect. Research studies highlight that butyric, propionic or formic acid effectively reduce Salmonella levels while the same or other studies point out that other acids, principally acetic acid, have no beneficial effect against Salmonella.

影响有机酸对沙门氏菌抑菌效果的因素:

酸种类:并不是所有的酸都具有相同的效果。研究表明,丁酸丙酸甲酸有效降低沙门氏菌水平其他酸,主要是乙酸,对沙门氏菌并无抑制作用。

Presentation: Commercial products usually encapsulate the acid or mix of acids included in the formulation. Some of these products also include other compounds, such as essential oils, other antimicrobials, etc. The inclusion of these compounds and the encapsulation may boost the effect of the product.

状态:商业产品通常把酸包封起来饲料配方中包含酸的混合物这类产品中通常还包括其化合物,例如精油其他抗微生物剂等。这些化合物和包封剂也可增强有机酸产品的效果。

Concentration: Concentration used is one of the key factors. The higher the concentration, the better the results. For instance, a study combining formic-propionic acids was effective reducing Salmonella shedding in feed when the product was used at 1.2 percent, but not when it was administered at 0.8 percent. The limitation of using higher concentrations is that cost is increased and the intervention could not be feasible from an economic point of view.

浓度:使用浓度是影响使用效果的关键因素之一。浓度越高,效果越好。例如,有研究显示,使用甲酸-丙酸结合物浓度为1.2%时,就可有效减少饲料中沙门氏菌,但是当浓度为0.8%时,则没有抑制效果使用较高浓度的局限性是成本增加。

Treatment duration: Treatment duration is the other key factor. The right combination duration-concentration will determine the success or failure of the intervention. In general, short treatment periods (between 2 weeks and 4 weeks) have yielded poor results. Studies using propionic, formic, butyric or a mix of acids at a concentration between 0.3 percent and 2 percent for prolonged periods (between 6 and 12 weeks) could decrease the percentage of pigs shedding Salmonella in feces.

处理时间:处理时间是另一个关键因素。正确的集中使用时间将决定使用有机酸处理结果的成败。一般来说,使用时间短(2周至4周)的疗效差。有研究使用丙酸甲酸丁酸或混合酸,浓度为0.3%至2延长处理时间(612周),结果显示粪便中沙门氏菌脱落的百分比降低

Salmonella serotype: In contrast to vaccines, the effect of organic acids is not serotype-dependent.

沙门氏菌血清型:与疫苗不同的是,有机酸的作用效果是不受血清型影响的

Cost-benefit analysis of use of organic acids

First of all, it must be noted that despite the infection in most of occasions subclinical, there is a lower performance of infected pigs compared to Salmonella-free pigs. For instance, in a study in grower pigs, feed conversion efficiency (Kg/Kg) (FCE) was 1.88 and 1.66 in Salmonella-infected and Salmonella-free animals, respectively. Cost-benefit analysis in different commercial products revealed interesting data. Using these products at the recommended rates, FCE was improved in pigs with the acid diet compared to the control diet, together with a better cost of feed per Kg of live weight gain (EUR0.89 in the control feed and EUR0.84 in the feed supplemented with the acid).

使用有机酸的成本效益分析

首先,必须指出,尽管大多数的猪呈亚临床性感染,但是相比没有感染沙门氏菌的猪来说,这些感染猪的生产性能还是要更差的。例如,在对生长猪的研究中,感染沙门氏菌和未感染沙门氏菌的猪的料肉比分别为1.881.66。分析不同商品的成本效益,在推荐剂量下应用这些产品的猪相比对照组的料肉比得到了一定程度的改善。同时,每公斤活体重增加的饲料成本更低(对照组为0.89欧元,有机酸补充组为0.84欧元)。

Organic acids as a strategy

Organic acids are one of the strategies offered to control and reduce Salmonella levels on the farm. The market offers lots of products with different combinations of organic acids. The right dose and treatment duration are essential for success, but acids need other on-farm interventions related to hygiene, biosecurity and management to reduce Salmonella to negligible levels.

有机酸作为控制手段

有机酸是控制和减少农场沙门氏菌水平的手段之一,市面上有很多不同组合的有机酸的产品。正确的剂量和处理时间对于成功控制沙门氏菌至关重要。但除了使用有机酸,农场也要采取保证卫生和生物安全等的相关措施,从而将沙门氏菌降低到可忽略的水平。

A combination of hydrothermal treatment and the use of organic acids can successfully de-contaminate feed. This was shown by research from the German Research Institute of Feed Technology.

水热处理法结合有机酸的使用有效净化被污染的饲料该方法已经被德国饲料技术研究所的研究证实

Current research

At the IFF Research Institute of Feed Technology, a multi-stage industry research project for hygienisation is being carried out using a combination of hydrothermal treatment and various organic acid preparations. A total of 15 project partners in the field of feed production, plant construction, additive production as well as an association of value chain in Germany have decided together with the IFF Research Institute to continue the research in this area. The fact that additional financial support from the Victam Foundation was granted once again points out the importance of hygienisation in the feed industry, not only in Germany.

目前的研究

IFF饲料技术研究所,为了达到饲料卫生标准,正在进行一项关于水热处理各种有机酸制剂组合应用的多阶段行业研究项目。在德国,饲料生产工厂建设添加剂生产以及价值链协会等总共有15个项目合作伙伴与IFF研究所一起继续深入研究这一领域。事实上,来自Victam基金会的额外财政支持再次表明了卫生保健在饲料行业的重要性,仅限于德国。

In the first project section, the treatment of two mash compound feeds (broiler feed and laying hen feed) and a single feedstuff (rapeseed meal) are carried out in order to assess different buffer effects (between 740 and 2,150 mEq/kg) on the efficacy of the treatment. Since the Research Institute is not allowed to infect Salmonella-free feedstuff artificially with Salmonella or work with naturally Salmonella-contaminated feedstuffs, the individual feedstuffs are inoculated with a suitable a-pathogenic test germ from the family of Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coliDSM 498).

在第一个项目部分,为了评估不同缓冲效应(7402150 mEq/kg之间的处理效果,对两种混合饲料(肉鸡饲料和产蛋鸡饲料)和单一饲料(菜籽粉)进行处理。由于研究所不允许用沙门氏菌人工感染无沙门氏菌的饲料或使用自然条件下受到沙门氏菌污染的饲料,所以从肠杆菌科(大肠杆菌DSM 498)中选择合适的致病菌接种饲料

This test organism according to current knowledge has a similar degradation behaviour as pathogenic Salmonella in hydrothermal and/or chemical stress. The contaminated batches are treated hydrothermically at different treatment temperatures or with additional use of 85% formic acid or one of three acid preparations, which are added during the conditioning. The acid preparations are two liquid products and a powdered product, which are made available by the manufacturers and are used in dosage rates between 0.1 and 2.5% as required by the project partners. The effectiveness of the treatment is microbiologically examined at defined times between one day and 12 weeks.

根据当前知识,该测试中的致病菌与致病性沙门氏菌水热或化学刺激条件下具有与相似的降解行为。接种病原菌的饲料分别在不同的处理温度下进行水热处理,或者使用85%甲酸或其他酸性制剂。研究中的酸性制剂两种液体产品和一种粉末产品,分别生产商提供,并且按照项目合作伙伴的要求以0.1%2.5%的剂量使用。通过在限定时间1天至12)内进行微生物学检查来判定处理是否有效

Results so far

The results obtained so far suggest that a combined approach of hydrothermic/mechanical treatment and the simultaneous use of organic acid preparations during conditioning (de-pending on their dosage) brings various advantages compared to a solely hydrothermical mechanical treatment. Depending on the dosage of the acid preparations, the liquid products show, as expected, a markedly better effect than the acid adsorbate on direct comparison, with which the same results are achieved in some cases only after a considerably extended exposure time.

目前的结果

迄今为止所获得的结果表明,如预期的那样,相比单独使用水热机械处理水热机械处理同时结合有机酸制剂(剂量未定使用具有很多的优点这取决于有机酸的剂量,正如预期,液体有机酸的使用效果明显比酸吸附剂要好很多。因为酸吸附剂要处理更长的时间才能达到液体有机酸制剂相同的结果。

Even after cooling/drying the treated feed, a contamination of the feed seems to be prevented by the use of organic acid preparations during the hydrothermal treatment, which could make an additional preservation of the feed unnecessary. An in-depth implementation and further development of the obtained findings will be taken up in a follow-up project after completion of the current research project.

即使在冷却/干燥处理过的饲料之后,在水热处理期间似乎也可以通过使用有机酸制剂来防止饲料的污染,这可以进一步帮助我们保存饲料。在完成目前的研究项目后,将在后续工作中对所获得的结果进行深入实施和进一步发展。



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